“Everything I tell you is a lie. Every question I ask is a trick. You will find no truth in me.” - Vergere
French’s passe composé is used to express completed actions in the pasts. If the verb in French is parler, to speak, it can be roughly translated in English to spoke, has spoken, and did speak.
Passe Composé has 2 parts:
- Auxiliary/Helping Verb (avoir or être)
- Past Participle
To form the passe composé, you need to conjugate avoir or être, then add the past participle after. The following past participles are only used with avoir.
Regular Past Participles:
-ER verbs (e.g. manger, parler): the er becomes é.
parler —> parlé
-RE verbs (e.g. vendre): the re becomes u.
vendre —> vendu
-IR verbs (e.g. finir): the ir becomes i.
finir —> fini
Irregular Past Participles:
avoir —> eu
il y a —> il y a eu
boire —> bu
voir —> vu
lire —> lu
être —> été
faire —> fait
écrire —> écrit
prendre —> pris
apprendre —> appris
comprender —> compris
- J’ai mangé - I ate.
- Tu as passé un bon week-end? - Did you have a good weekend?
- Nous avons lu le livre. - We read the book.
But did you notice that passe composé also consists of using être as an auxiliary verb???
Most of the passe composé takes avoir, but here is an easy way to remember which past participles should be paired with être: Dr.-Mrs.Vandertramp. Let me show you:
Devenir —> devenu(e)(s)
Revenir —> revenu(e)(s)
Monter —> monté(e)(s)
Rester —> resté(e)(s)
Sortir —> sorti(e)(s)
Venir —> venu(e)(s)
Aller —> allé(e)(s)
Naître —> né(e)(s)
Descendre —> descendu(e)(s)
Entrer —> entré(e)(s)
Retourner —> retourné(e)(s)
Tomber —> tombé(e)(s)
Retourner —> retourné(e)(s)
Arriver —> arrivé(e)(s)
Mourir —> mort(e)(s)
Partir —> parti(e)(s)
So what’s up with all the extra e’s and s’s?
Take for example, aller, which was changed to allé(e)(s).
Allé is used for masculine singular.
Allée is used for feminine singular.
Allés is used for masculine plural.
Allées is used for feminine plural.
- Les étudiants sont arrivés à l’heure. (There are multiple students, so there is an “s” tacked onto “arrivé.” Notice also that the être verb is used instead of avoir)
- Je suis restée à la maison. (I’m a female, and I’m only talking about myself, so I used the singular feminine of “rester”)
*Note: French isn’t my forte, this is just from my notes so feel free to correct me :P
spanish and italian: So THESE words are feminine and THESE words are masculine, and you ALWAYS put an adjective AFTER the noun.
french: haha i dont fuckin know man just do whatever
german: LET'S ADD A NEUTRAL NOUN HAHA
english: *shooting up in the bathroom*
gaelic: the pronounciation changes depending on the gender and what letter the word starts and ends with and hahah i dont even know good fucking luck
polish: here have all of these consonants have fun
japanese: subject article noun article verb. too bad there's three fucking alphabets lmao hope your first language isn't western
welsh: sneeze, and chances are you've got it right. idfk
chinese: here's a picture. draw it. it means something. it can be pronounced three different ways. these twenty other pictures are pronounced the same but have very different meanings. godspeed.